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Materials » A Basic Motor Controller Guide for Direct On Line Electrical Motor Controls
Updated on January 27, 2013 ianjonas moreContact Author By Zureks (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons The electric motor is by far one of the best known invention ever developed by the ingenuity of man. It’s probably the most innovative piece of electrical device that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy, and conversely, it is also able to generating electrical energy from mechanical energy or more commonly known as generators, which produces electricity while the motor is coupled to and driven by a gas or a diesel engine.

Electric motors are widely used in various applications as prime movers of machines utilized in diverse applications and industry similar to electric cars, the electric locomotive, elevators, escalators, water pumps, air compressors, electric fans, hand drills, sewing machine, washing machine, microwave ovens, alternators that recharges a car battery, CD and DVD drives, and even the smallest device corresponding to battery operated wrist watches, and with a complete lot more of other uses and specific applications which we may not even bear in mind of, but that are just common things within our reach in our everyday life.

By en:User:C_J_Cowie [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons Depending on the varieties of application governed by the way of operation and the motor capacity involved for a particular load to be driven, an electric motor is most certainly operated by way of an electrical activation and control system referred to as a motor controller. Motor controllers are basically essentially the most indispensable component of electric motors which plays a significant part in essentially providing a suitable operation required with the numerous methods involved in running and stopping an electric motor.

Although there are quite a lot of complex methods which will be implemented, this text aims to cover a few of probably the most fundamental electric motor control applications with alternating current (AC) induction motors commonly utilized in every industry, and probably the most basic type of motor controller is the Direct On Line (DOL) motor controller.

Electrical Motor Controls for Integrated Systems Buy Now Direct On Line Motor Controller (DOL)
The simplest method of motor control is the Direct On Line (DOL) motor controller, which directly supplies the line voltage to the motor via a switch or by a single unit magnetic contactor. Any such motor controller is applied mostly to small size motors because small motors does not cause too much load burden that may adversely affect the availability source voltage coming from the electric power grid.

The CAD drawing on the suitable shows an electrical diagram of a typical method of 3 phase DOL motor power circuit controller.

Direct On Line (DOL) Motor Controller | Source: CAD drawing by ianjonas The main circuit breaker acts as the principle switch supplying power to the system. It’s also equipped with over current and short circuit protection that automatically trips-off to disconnect the availability of electricity to disable the load upon detection of fault within the load circuit.

The principle magnetic contactor acts because the motor operation switch which connects and disconnects the provision voltage coming from the principle circuit breaker to the motor. When the primary contactor is closed, the supply voltage proceeds to the motor terminal which runs the motor.

The thermal overload relay serves to detect motor overload current which when detected will instantaneously disconnect the control circuit of the motor controller to stop the operation to stop burning of the motor.

Direct On Line (DOL) Control Circuit Diagram | Source: CAD drawing by ianjonas Electrical Motor Controls for Integrated Systems Buy Now The DOL control circuit diagram shown on the best illustrates a typical switching system for a DOL motor controller. When the human operator pushes the RUN push button switch, the control circuit becomes complete which permits power to travel down to the principle contactor coil which energizes the main contactor. Once the principle contactor is powered up, its internal three pole mechanical contacts (consult with the motor control diagram) closes which connects the source voltage to proceed to the motor terminal, hence running the motor.

Going back to the control circuit diagram, because the auxiliary normally open contact of the primary contactor which is connected in parallel across the RUN push button switch was already at closed state following the activation of the main contactor coil, electricity continues to flow all the way down to the main contactor coil even after the operator releases his finger from the RUN push button switch, this serves as the holding contact switch which maintains a whole circuit to run the motor continuously without further human intervention, providing ease of use for operator convenience to change ON and switch OFF the motor only once via the RUN and STOP push button swithces.

There are two circuit disconnection within the control system. Other than the OFF push button switch, the thermal overload relay also serves as a disconnecting switch that renders an open or incomplete control circuit which deactivates the primary contactor to stop the motor upon detection of motor overload current.

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Electric motors can run in both forward and reverse direction depending on the requirement of the applying where it’s to be installed, for example, like in a conveyor system which might require moving on both direction of items contained within the conveyor table. When such arrangement is important for a certain type of application, then a forward reverse motor controller is applied to the control circuit of the electric motor to achieve this purpose. Again the device required for the opportunity of this operation is the magnetic contactor.

Reversing motor rotation of 3 phase AC induction motors could be achieved by the use of interchanging the configuration of any two of the three motor terminals U1, V1, W1 with respect to the reference supply voltage L1, L2, L3. The CAD drawing below provides a visible explanation for this method of operation.

Forward Reverse Motor Rotation Selection Control | Source: CAD drawing by ianjonas A Typical Magnetic Contactor for Motor Control By david shummer (de mes archives) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons You will notice from the motor control diagram above that there are two units of magnetic contactors (forward contactor and reverse contactor) connected in parallel across one another. Notice that the line side terminals of those two contactors follows a standard connection configuration for the supply voltage L1, L2, L3, while the load side terminals of those two contactors have different configuration for the motor terminals U1, V1, W1. The forward contactor is connected to make L1 connect to U1, L2 to V1, L3 to W1 which makes the motor run within the forward direction. While the reverse contactor is configured with two terminals in the reverse order, with L1 connected to W1 instead of U1, then L3 connected to U1 instead of W1, while maintaining only L2 connected to V1.

Forward Reverse Motor Rotation Control Circuit | Source: CAD drawing by ianjonas The forward reverse control circuit diagram illustrated above shows two DOL control circuit with two magnetic contactors to accommodate both the forward and reverse motor rotation, but with the inclusion of an extra interlocking normally close contacts each inserted for each contactor coils. These interlocking contacts are intended as a safety precautionary feature to prevent simultaneous activation of both contactor coils at the same time, which if not prevented can destroy the electric motor.

When the forward contactor coil is activated, its auxiliary normally close contact connected before the reverse contactor coil might be opened, thereby preventing any power to flow to the reverse contactor coil in case of accidental pressing of the reverse push button switch while the motor is running within the forward direction with the forward contactor coil energized.

Similarly, when the motor is running in the reverse direction with the reverse contactor coil energized, it’s not also possible to power up the forward contactor coil because of the presence of an open reverse contact switch provided by the energized reverse contactor coil, thus, preventing the motor to run in forward direction while it is actively running within the reverse direction.

Another indispensable electrical control method for AC induction motors is the star delta motor controller.

Motor Controllers are also an indispensable part of Industrial Process Automation Technology.0 Unported License.

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by alex 3145

Materials height:75px” class=”thumbphoto”>Robots height:75px” class=”thumbphoto”>Materials height:75px” class=”thumbphoto”>Robots display: none;”>sendingRaghu 6 months ago

What is the star and Delta ?

rakesh kumar 2 years ago

M hindi m 3 phase currcuit k bare m

kapilwankhede30 2 years ago

It is like a pleasant application

zubaiirullah 5 years ago

defrent motor electrical controling manual

Jyothidas 5 years ago from Bangalore

It is a good tutorial .. awesome

orraca-tetteh 5 years ago

please attempt to send me more of such diagrams orracatettehb@yahoo.com

waseem akram 5 years ago

main jana chata hu ke contarol currcuit ke ba rey main.

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